Corneal Transplant in India
Cornea transplant is also known as the keratoplasty or corneal graft. In this procedure, the cornea of the cornea of the individual is replaced with a part of the cornea of the donor cornea. It ensures that the functioning of the cornea of the eyes is restored for the rest of the life. One of the significant advantages of the cornea transplants is that majority of the cornea transplant procedures are successful in the today’s times. It ensures that the individuals who have defective or damaged cornea can opt for the cornea transplant procedure in the long run. Keratoconus is a condition where the shape of the cornea changes. It leads to the requirement of the cornea transplant procedure in the patient.
The cornea is the part of the eyes which helps in the vision of the individual. It is present as an outer layer of clear nature on the eyes. It is responsible for focusing the required light rays on the retina of the eyes. The picture created is transmitted to the brain. In this way, the brain signals and makes the individual understand regarding the particular object present in front of the individual. But if the cornea does not function well, then it is essential to understand that the cornea of the individual requires proper treatment. In such case, a cornea transplant is advised to the patients.
There are different types of cornea transplant which ensure that the patients can receive the required kind of procedure according to their condition and case requirement.
— Full-thickness type: This is also known as the penetrating keratoplasty. This type of cornea transplant procedure is performed when the in-depth corneal layers are affected. The damaged cornea is removed an replaced with the healthy donor cornea. Due to the depth and layers of the cornea, the recovery time in case of this type of transplant is also more. Extra care is taken in this type of cornea transplant as the rejection chances are too high.
–Partial thickness type: This type of cornea transplant is utilized when few superficial layers of the cornea are affected. This procedure is also known as deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). Here only the middle and outer layers of the cornea are reshaped or replaced successfully during the procedure. The results of the method are worth appreciating, and the rejection chances are also less here.
— Endothelial keratoplasty: In some of the patients, the innermost layer of the cornea is affected. This layer is called as the endothelium. Here, a procedure known as endothelial keratoplasty is performed and the innermost layer of the cornea is removed. It is then replaced with a healthy layer of the cornea. It is a partial transplant. The success levels of the transplant surgeries depend on the thickness of the corneal layer which is placed in the eyes of the patients. Thinner tissue placement is much complicated than the thicker ones. The best part of this type of cornea transplant is that it does not require any stitches as the layer sticks to the other layers with the aid of an air bubble.
So, you can now have an idea of the different types of corneal transplants. The eye surgeon will decide on the type of the corneal transplant based on the condition of the cornea at present.
Cornea transplants also have the chances of rejection like other types of cornea transplants. But the percentage of success is much higher than that of the different types of cornea transplants. The recovery time varies with the type of the cornea transplant procedure. The rate of recovery is faster in case of the replacement of the middle and outer corneal layers of the patient. One needs to understand the importance of proper eye care right after the completion of the cornea transplant procedure. The family members and caregivers need to focus on the lifestyle of the patient to ensure faster recovery. It also includes avoiding direct contact with dust and sun rays till the complete healing takes place. Also, the patient should avoid any stressful tasks or activities which includes swimming or participating sports events till the eye surgeon allows to do so. In this way, cornea transplant surgery is performed successfully with the achievement of the desired results.