Virtually all cervical cancers are brought on by long-lasting (persistent) infection with high-risk varieties of human papillomavirus (HPV).
At some point in their lives, almost everyone who engages in sexual activity will contract the HPV virus. HPV infections with a high-risk (cancer-causing) HPV type account for almost half of all cases. Along with cervical cancer, high-risk HPV can also lead to a number of other cancers. The high-risk strains of HPV that lead to the majority of cervical cancer occurrences include HPV16 and HPV18. If ever anyone is diagnosed with this, there shouldn’t be any delay to reach out for the expert cancer treatment in India.
As the immune system manages the infection, the majority of HPV infections disappear on their own. Long-term high-risk HPV infections can alter the cervical cells in ways that, if left untreated, can develop into cancer. Cancer hospitals in India have the right facilities to get the proper diagnosis done and start the right form of treatment immediately.
There are a number of symptoms associated with this type of cancer. The most common ones include –
- During the early stage of the cancer, there can be vaginal bleeding after sex or watery vaginal discharge with a strong odor or that contains blood and pelvic pain or pain during sex.
- In advanced cases, there can be difficulty in bowel movements, bleeding from the rectum, difficult or painful urination, dull backache, swelling of legs, abdominal pain, and a constant sense of tiredness.
Treatment according to stages and types –
Treatment of stage IA cervical cancer
- Stages IA1 and IA2 of cervical cancer are distinguished. Stage IA1 cervical carcinoma treatment options include –
- Cold knife conization, a fertility-sparing procedure, which is generally taken for some small cancers
- Total hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, which is given for patients who are on the higher risk of getting back cancer
Treatment of stage IA2 cervical cancer may include –
- Internal radiation therapy, for patients who cannot have surgery
- Modified radical hysterectomy and removal of lymph nodes
- Radical trachelectomy, a fertility-sparing surgery, and removal of lymph nodes
Treatment of stages IB and IIA cervical cancer
- Treatment of stage IB and stage IIA cervical cancer may include –
- Radical trachelectomy, a fertility-sparing surgery
- Rdiation therapy which is generally given at the same time as chemotherapy
- Radical hysterectomy and removal of pelvic lymph nodes with or without radiation therapy to the pelvis, plus chemotherapy
- Radiation therapy only
When radiation is employed, it may be administered as either an external radiation therapy alone or an external and internal radiation therapy combination. Radiation therapy may be administered along with chemotherapy medications like cisplatin or carboplatin. Radiation therapy works better when chemotherapy is administered concurrently with it.
Treatment of stages IIB, III, and IVA cervical cancer
- This will have –
- Radiation therapy while undergoing chemotherapy
- Surgical removal of pelvic lymph nodes followed by radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy
Treatment of stage IVB cervical cancer
- Radiation therapy as palliative therapy, which is done to prevent bleeding from cancer
- Chemotherapy and the targeted therapy drug bevacizumab as palliative therapy.
Palliative therapy is a type of medical care designed to enhance the quality of life for those with serious or life-threatening illnesses like cancer. Many of the same cancer therapies, including radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and other types of medication, can also be used as palliative therapy to make a patient feel better.
Treatment of recurrent cervical cancer
Recurring cervical cancer is treated with radiation therapy and chemotherapy at the same time. Radiation treatments can be administered either exclusively as external radiation therapy or in conjunction with internal radiation therapy. Recurrent cervical cancer is treated with many different chemotherapeutic medications.
As a palliative treatment, chemotherapy and the targeted therapy medication bevacizumab are used. As palliative therapy for recurring cervical cancer, numerous different chemotherapy agents may be administered singly or in combination.