Everything About Bone Marrow Transplant That You Need to Know

Everything About Bone Marrow Transplant That You Need to Know

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Our bones contain a fatty, gelatinous tissue called bone marrow. It produces platelets, which cause clots to form, white blood cells, which boost the immune system, and red blood cells, which transport oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. However, there can be conditions when a human body develops complications in the bone marrow. This is when you will need a bone marrow transplant in India. However, the process is pretty complicated. This is why, when diagnosed with any complication, you need to reach out to the experts of the bone marrow transplant hospitals in India.

When Do We Need A Bone Marrow Transplant?

When a person’s bone marrow isn’t healthy enough to function correctly, bone marrow transplants are necessary. Aplastic anaemia, Neuroblastoma, Sickle Cell Anemia, Plasma Cell Disorder, Thalassemia, Metabolism Errors, or Bone Marrow Cancers such as Leukemia, Myeloma, or Lymphoma can cause these conditions. Immune Deficiencies, Congenital Neutropenia, which leads to recurrent infections, a blood disorder that damages the nerves, and other blood disorders can also cause these conditions.

A medical treatment called a bone marrow transplant is used to replace bone marrow that has been harmed or destroyed. Blood stem cells are transplanted throughout this process, and they end up in the bone marrow. They create fresh blood cells and encourage the development of fresh marrow here. The defective stem cells are replaced with healthy cells during a bone marrow transplant.

Types Of Bone Marrow Transplant

Depending on why you need a transplant, there are two different forms of bone marrow transplants.

Autologous Transplants

They rely on a patient’s own stem cells. Before initiating any harmful procedures like chemotherapy or radiation, it entails extracting your cells. Your cells are returned to your body after the procedure. Only those with healthy bone marrow can use this procedure.

Allogeneic Transplants

Cells from a donor who must be a close genetic match are used in allogeneic transplants. It is possible to use a compatible relative or a genetic match discovered through a donor registry. They, however, carry an increased risk of some problems. Depending on the HLA matching, this can be completely matched or haploidentical (slightly mismatched).

Preparation and Procedure

Several tests are necessary to determine the type of bone marrow cells you require prior to a bone marrow transplant. Before receiving the new stem cells, you might also need to have radiation or chemotherapy to eliminate any cancerous or bone marrow cells.
Only when your doctor feels you are prepared does the bone marrow transplant process start. A day or two prior to the transplant, your donor’s bone marrow cells are removed, while if your cells are needed, they will be taken from the stem cell bank. This is known as an allogeneic transplant.
A central venous catheter is the tube used during the bone marrow transplant to deliver the competent stem cells into your blood. The fluid in the tube allows the healthy stem cells to get directly to the heart. After spreading throughout your body, these healthy stem cells eventually give rise to bone marrow.

Recovery Post Treatment

Bone marrow transplant can take up to a week. Your immune system will be compromised throughout the treatment. You will therefore need to remain in the hospital under monitoring. By doing this, the chance of coming into contact with anything infectious is decreased. Your engraftment is being closely and frequently monitored. After the initial transplant, it usually takes 15 to 30 days to finish. An increasing white blood cell count is the initial indicator of engraftment. This demonstrates that the transplant is generating fresh blood cells. A bone marrow transplant recovery period lasts roughly three months. However, full healing could take up to a year.


A dip in blood pressure, a headache, nausea, pain, shortness of breath, chills, or fever are just a few of the transplant’s temporary side effects. Nevertheless, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), in which the donor cells assault your body, is one of the serious effects; Graft failure happens when transplanted cells don’t start generating new cells as expected. Other symptoms of graft failure include early menopause, anaemia, bleeding in the lungs, brain, or other body parts, eye cataract damage, soreness in the mouth, throat, or stomach, and severe bacterial, fungal, or viral infections that can occasionally be fatal.

To prevent weariness, one must follow a balanced eating plan and always drink plenty of water. To maintain a successful recovery, it is necessary to refrain from drinking alcohol and to keep a healthy weight.

   Bone Marrow Transplant Treatment