Liver cancer is a term used to describe the cancer that originates in the liver. One of the body’s major organs, the liver, is located in the upper right abdominal quadrant beneath the diaphragm. Depending on age, gender, lifestyle choices, and persisting medical conditions, the liver may develop any number of cancer forms. The most prevalent form of liver cancer, or hepatocellular carcinoma, develops from the major kind of liver cells (hepatocyte).
Usually, liver cancer is divided into primary and secondary types. The liver cells are where primary liver cancer begins. If one can get cancer treatment in India during this stage, there are more chances of getting better. When cancer cells metastasize to the liver from another organ, secondary liver cancer or liver metastasis results. Depending on the various types of liver cells, several primary liver cancers might be discovered.
The liver cancer spreads throughout the body with little symptoms or warning signs, thus the patient is unaware of the condition. When a patient experiences symptoms, the malignancy has already progressed. The warning indicators include jaundice, weight loss, itchy skin, and abdominal lumps. A hopeful resort for the treatment is to get Liver Transplant Treatment in India.
Available treatment options for liver cancer
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), commonly referred to as hepatoma, is the most prevalent type of liver cancer and makes up 75% of all primary liver malignancies. Blood tests can be used to examine tumour markers such Alfa feto protein (AFP) or Ca19-9, CEA as well as liver function. Staging is the process of determining the extent of the disease and involves CT and PET scans. Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or transarterial radioembolization (TARE), and liver transplantation are all parts of the usual treatment approach for liver cancer. Proton beam therapy is also becoming a significant alternative for individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most lethal form of liver cancer with few effective treatment choices
Why Proton Beam Therapy?
Treatment with proton radiation is getting a popular liver cancer treatment as it provides more focused radiation using high-speed positively charged particles.
Protons are accelerated during PBT by a device known as a synchrotron or cyclotron. Rapid energy is produced by the protons’ high velocity. The protons are propelled by this energy to the desired depth into the body. The protons then deliver the precise radiation dose to the tumour. With proton therapy, the external radiation dose to the tumour is lower. As the x-rays leave the patient’s body during X-ray radiation therapy, they continue to provide radiation doses, which means that radiation also affects nearby healthy tissues and could result in adverse effects.
In PBT, this is not the case. Compared to X-ray therapy (XRT), PBT delivers minimum dosage to neighbouring healthy organs, which is particularly important for the treatment of liver malignancies as the mean and low dose to the liver is one of the most important causes of radiation-induced liver disease (RILD). It has been demonstrated that high-dose PBT in patients with HCC results in excellent long-term tumour control with little harm. Growing research supports the use of PBT in patients with hepatic metastases or unresectable cholangiocarcinomas, particularly in those with bigger tumours who are unlikely candidates for XRT.
The number of PBT sessions is dependent on the size, kind, and stage of the liver cancer and is a painless procedure. PBT is a crucial therapeutic option for cancers that are close to vital organs. Additionally, PBT can be used to treat these cancers:
- Cancers of the central nervous system, such as chordoma and malignant meningioma.
- Eye cancer
- Having cancer in the head and neck
- Chest cancer
- Prostate cancer
- Pelvic and spinal cancer (which occur in the bone and soft-tissue)
- Non-cancerous tumours in the brain